Which political measures can reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Germany by 65% (compared to 1990) by 2030? This was prescribed as the target in the Climate Protection Act in 2021. The Federal Environment Agency answers this question in the newly published 500-page “Climate Protection Instruments Scenario 2030”. In a comparative scenario, it was calculated that the climate protection measures adopted by mid-2020 would probably enable a reduction of 49.3%.

The measures are considered differentiated by sector and the scenario is calculated accordingly. The most important measures include:

  • Energy sector -> no coal-fired power plants by 2030, expansion of wind and solar power plants.
  • Industry -> reduction of heat generation, industrial power plants and iron and steel production
  • Buildings -> renovation, ban on fossil boilers and switch to heat pumps and district heating
  • Transport -> electrification, adjusting taxation to greenhouse gas emissions, expanding alternatives
  • Agriculture -> tightening of fertiliser regulations, strengthening of organic agriculture
  • Waste management and other -> Expansion of landfill aeration, optimisation of gas collection
  • Land use, land use change and forestry -> Moorland soil protection, humus build-up on agricultural land through agroforestry systems

The largest differences between the current scenario and one in which the climate protection targets are achieved are found in the energy, industry and transport sectors.